Andrew McMahon (PI)
University of Southern California
- Nils Lindstrom
University of Southern California
- Albert Kim
University of Southern California
- Tracy (Trinh) Tran
University of Southern California
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron — hence, our focus on obtaining a thorough understanding of mammalian nephrogenesis. The current GUDMAP view of this process reflects the general view from the literature: largely two-dimensional, mouse kidney focused snapshots depict the progression of a sub-set of mesenchymal nephron progenitors through a mesenchymal to epithelial transition, followed by the complex morphogenesis and patterning process that establishes the nephron. To augment this understanding of the mammalian kidney, we can now harness recent advances in both static and live dynamic cell imaging, the access to human fetal kidney specimens and the development of pluripotent stem cell (PSC) culture-seeded nephrogenesis. With this goal, we will generate comparative 4D views of nephron development in the mouse and human, extending these studies to the imaging of selected mutants in the nephrogenic program. Given the recent advances in the directed differentiation of PSCs into nephron-like structures, a benchmark for normal nephrogenesis will have considerable value to the emerging field of regenerative kidney biology.
Lindström, NO; McMahon, JA; Guo, J; Tran, T; Guo, Q; Rutledge, E; Parvez, RK; Saribekyan, G; Schuler, RE; Liao, C; Kim, AD; Abdelhalim, A; Ruffins, SW; Thornton, ME; Basking, L; Grubbs, B; Kesselman, C; McMahon, AP. J Am Soc Nephrol. February 2018.
Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience. In this first paper in a series providing comprehensive insight into human kidney formation, we examined human kidney development in 135 anonymously donated human kidney specimens. We documented kidney development at a macroscopic and cellular level through histologic analysis, RNA in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence studies, and transcriptional profiling, contrasting human development (4-23 weeks) with mouse development at selected stages (embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 2). The high-resolution histologic interactive atlas of human kidney organogenesis generated can be viewed at the GUDMAP database (www.gudmap.org) together with three-dimensional reconstructions of key components of the data herein. At the anatomic level, human and mouse kidney development differ in timing, scale, and global features such as lobe formation and progenitor niche organization. The data also highlight differences in molecular and cellular features, including the expression and cellular distribution of anchor gene markers used to identify key cell types in mouse kidney studies. These data will facilitate and inform in vitro efforts to generate human kidney structures and comparative functional analyses across mammalian species.
Lindström, NO; Guo, J; Kim, AD; Tran, T; Guo, Q; De Sena Brandine, G; Ransick, A; Parvez, RK; Thornton, ME; Basking, L; Grubbs, B; McMahon, JA; Smith, AD; McMahon, AP. J Am Soc Nephrol. February 2018.
Cellular interactions among nephron, interstitial, and collecting duct progenitors drive mammalian kidney development. In mice, Six2+ nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) and Foxd1+ interstitial progenitor cells (IPCs) form largely distinct lineage compartments at the onset of metanephric kidney development. Here, we used the method for analyzing RNA following intracellular sorting (MARIS) approach, single-cell transcriptional profiling, in situ hybridization, and immunolabeling to characterize the presumptive NPC and IPC compartments of the developing human kidney. As in mice, each progenitor population adopts a stereotypical arrangement in the human nephron-forming niche: NPCs capped outgrowing ureteric branch tips, whereas IPCs were sandwiched between the NPCs and the renal capsule. Unlike mouse NPCs, human NPCs displayed a transcriptional profile that overlapped substantially with the IPC transcriptional profile, and key IPC determinants, including FOXD1, were readily detected within SIX2+ NPCs. Comparative gene expression profiling in human and mouse Six2/SIX2+ NPCs showed broad agreement between the species but also identified species-biased expression of some genes. Notably, some human NPC-enriched genes, including DAPL1 and COL9A2, are linked to human renal disease. We further explored the cellular diversity of mesenchymal cell types in the human nephrogenic niche through single-cell transcriptional profiling. Data analysis stratified NPCs into two main subpopulations and identified a third group of differentiating cells. These findings were confirmed by section in situ hybridization with novel human NPC markers predicted through the single-cell studies. This study provides a benchmark for the mesenchymal progenitors in the human nephrogenic niche and highlights species-variability in kidney developmental programs.
Lindström, NO; Tran, T; Guo, J; Rutledge, E; Parvez, RK; Thornton, ME; Grubbs, B; McMahon, JA; McMahon, AP. J Am Soc Nephrol. February 2018.
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, but the mechanism of nephron formation during human development is unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of nephron development in humans and mice by immunolabeling, and we compared human and mouse nephron patterning to describe conserved and divergent features. We created protein localization maps that highlight the emerging patterns along the proximal–distal axis of the developing nephron and benchmark expectations for localization of functionally important transcription factors, which revealed unanticipated cellular diversity. Moreover, we identified a novel nephron subdomain marked by Wnt4 expression that we fate-mapped to the proximal mature nephron. Significant conservation was observed between human and mouse patterning. We also determined the time at which markers for mature nephron cell types first emerge—critical data for the renal organoid field. These findings have conceptual implications for the evolutionary processes driving the diversity of mammalian organ systems. Furthermore, these findings provide practical insights beyond those gained with mouse and rat models that will guide in vitro efforts to harness the developmental programs necessary to build human kidney structures.
Ryan, D; Sutherland, MR; Flores, TJ; Kent, AL; Dahlstrom, JE; Puelles, VG; Bertram, JF; McMahon, AP; Little, MH; Moore, L; Black, MJ. EBioMedicine. vol. 27, 275–283. January 2018.
BACKGROUND: During normal human kidney development, nephrogenesis (the formation of nephrons) is complete by term birth, with the majority of nephrons formed late in gestation. The aim of this study was to morphologically examine nephrogenesis in fetal human kidneys from 20 to 41weeks of gestation. METHODS: Kidney samples were obtained at autopsy from 71 infants that died acutely in utero or within 24h after birth. Using image analysis, nephrogenic zone width, the number of glomerular generations, renal corpuscle cross-sectional area and the cellular composition of glomeruli were examined. Kidneys from female and male infants were analysed separately. FINDINGS: The number of glomerular generations formed within the fetal kidneys was directly proportional to gestational age, body weight and kidney weight, with variability between individuals in the ultimate number of generations (8 to 12) and in the timing of the cessation of nephrogenesis (still ongoing at 37weeks gestation in one infant). There was a slight but significant (r2=0.30, P=0.001) increase in renal corpuscle cross-sectional area from mid gestation to term in females, but this was not evident in males. The proportions of podocytes, endothelial and non-epithelial cells within mature glomeruli were stable throughout gestation. INTERPRETATION: These findings highlight spatial and temporal variability in nephrogenesis in the developing human kidney, whereas the relative cellular composition of glomeruli does not appear to be influenced by gestational age.
Wegner, KA; Cadena, MT; Trevena, R; Turco, AE; Gottschalk, A; Halberg, RB; Guo, J; McMahon, JA; McMahon, AP; Vezina, CM. PLoS ONE. vol. 12(11) November 2017.
O’Brien, LL; Guo, Q; Lee, Y; Tran, T; Benazet, JD; Whitney, PH; Valouev, A; McMahon, AP. Development. vol. 143(4), 595–608. February 2016.
Nephron endowment is determined by the self-renewal and induction of a nephron progenitor pool established at the onset of kidney development. In the mouse, the related transcriptional regulators Six1 and Six2 play non-overlapping roles in nephron progenitors. Transient Six1 activity prefigures, and is essential for, active nephrogenesis. By contrast, Six2 maintains later progenitor self-renewal from the onset of nephrogenesis. We compared the regulatory actions of Six2 in mouse and human nephron progenitors by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Surprisingly, SIX1 was identified as a SIX2 target unique to the human nephron progenitors. Furthermore, RNA-seq and immunostaining revealed overlapping SIX1 and SIX2 activity in 16 week human fetal nephron progenitors. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of human SIX1 and SIX2 ChIP-seq showed each factor targeted a similar set of cis-regulatory modules binding an identical target recognition motif. In contrast to the mouse where Six2 binds its own enhancers but does not interact with DNA around Six1, both human SIX1 and SIX2 bind homologous SIX2 enhancers and putative enhancers positioned around SIX1. Transgenic analysis of a putative human SIX1 enhancer in the mouse revealed a transient, mouse-like, pre-nephrogenic, Six1 regulatory pattern. Together, these data demonstrate a divergence in SIX-factor regulation between mouse and human nephron progenitors. In the human, an auto/cross-regulatory loop drives continued SIX1 and SIX2 expression during active nephrogenesis. By contrast, the mouse establishes only an auto-regulatory Six2 loop. These data suggest differential SIX-factor regulation might have contributed to species differences in nephron progenitor programs such as the duration of nephrogenesis and the final nephron count.
McMahon, AP. Curr Top Dev Biol. vol. 117, 31–64. January 2016.
The basic unit of kidney function is the nephron. In the mouse, around 14,000 nephrons form in a 10-day period extending into early neonatal life, while the human fetus forms the adult complement of nephrons in a 32-week period completed prior to birth. This review discusses our current understanding of mammalian nephrogenesis: the contributing cell types and the regulatory processes at play. A conceptual developmental framework has emerged for the mouse kidney. This framework is now guiding studies of human kidney development enabled in part by in vitro systems of pluripotent stem cell-seeded nephrogenesis. A near future goal will be to translate our developmental knowledge-base to the productive engineering of new kidney structures for regenerative medicine.
O’Brien, LL; McMahon, AP. Semin Cell Dev Biol. vol. 36, 31–8. December 2014.
The functional unit of the mammalian metanephric kidney is the nephron: a complex tubular structure dedicated to blood filtration and maintenance of several important physiological functions. Nephrons are assembled from a nephron-restricted pool of mesenchymal progenitors over an extensive developmental period that is completed prior to (human), or shortly after (mouse), birth. An appropriate balance in the expansion and commitment of nephron progenitors to nephron formation is essential for normal kidney function. Too few nephrons increase risk of kidney disease later in life while the failure of normal progenitor differentiation in Wilm’s tumor patients leads to massive growth of a nephroblast population often necessitating surgical removal of the kidney. An inductive process within the metanephric mesenchyme leads to the formation of a pretubular aggregate which transitions into an epithelial renal vesicle: the precursor for nephron assembly. Growth, morphogenesis and patterning transform this simple cyst-like structure into a highly elongated mature nephron with distinct cell types positioned along a proximal (glomerular) to distal (connecting segment) axis of functional organization. This review discusses our current understanding of the specification, maintenance and commitment of nephron progenitors, and the regulatory processes that transform the renal vesicle into a nephron.
Kumar, S; Liu, J; McMahon, AP. Semin Nephrol. vol. 34(4), 404–17. July 2014.
The mammalian kidney has an intrinsic ability to repair after significant injury. However, this process is inefficient: patients are at high risk for the loss of kidney function in later life. No therapy exists to treat established acute kidney injury (AKI) per se: strategies to promote endogenous repair processes and retard associated fibrosis are a high priority. Whole-organ gene expression profiling has been used to identify repair responses initiated with AKI, and factors that may promote the transition from AKI to chronic kidney disease. Transcriptional profiling has shown molecular markers and potential regulatory pathways of renal repair. Activation of a few key developmental pathways has been reported during repair. Whether these are comparable networks with similar target genes with those in earlier nephrogenesis remains unclear. Altered microRNA profiles, persistent tubular injury responses, and distinct late inflammatory responses highlight continuing kidney pathology. Additional insights into injury and repair processes will be gained by study of the repair transcriptome and cell-specific translatome using high-resolution technologies such as RNA sequencing and translational profiling tailored to specific cellular compartments within the kidney. An enhanced understanding holds promise for both the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarker-based evaluation of the damage-repair process.
Little, MH; Brown, D.; Humphreys, BD; McMahon, AP; Miner, JH; Sands, JM; Weisz, OA; Mullins, C; Hoshizaki, D; Kidney Research National Dialogue, (KRND). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. vol. 9(4), 809–11. April 2014.
The Kidney Research National Dialogue represents a novel effort by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to solicit and prioritize research objectives from the renal research and clinical communities. The present commentary highlights selected scientific opportunities specific to the study of renal development, physiology, and cell biology. Describing such fundamental kidney biology serves as a necessary foundation for translational and clinical studies that will advance disease care and prevention. It is intended that these objectives foster and focus scientific efforts in these areas in the coming decade and beyond.
Gandhi, D; Molotkov, A; Batourina, E; Schneider, K; Dan, H; Reiley, M; Laufer, E; Metzger, D; Liang, F; Liao, Y; Sun, TT; Aronow, B; Rosen, R; Mauney, J; Adam, R; Rosselot, C; Van Batavia, J; McMahon, AP; McMahon, J; Guo, JJ; Mendelsohn, C. Dev Cell. vol. 26(5), 469–482. September 2013.
The urothelium is a multilayered epithelium that serves as a barrier between the urinary tract and blood, preventing the exchange of water and toxic substances. It consists of superficial cells specialized for synthesis and transport of uroplakins that assemble into a tough apical plaque, one or more layers of intermediate cells, and keratin 5-expressing basal cells (K5-BCs), which are considered to be progenitors in the urothelium and other specialized epithelia. Fate mapping, however, reveals that intermediate cells rather than K5-BCs are progenitors in the adult regenerating urothelium, that P cells, a transient population, are progenitors in the embryo, and that retinoids are critical in P cells and intermediate cells, respectively, for their specification during development and regeneration. These observations have important implications for tissue engineering and repair and, ultimately, may lead to treatments that prevent loss of the urothelial barrier, a major cause of voiding dysfunction and bladder pain syndrome.
Wiese, CB; Ireland, S; Fleming, NL; Yu, J; Valerius, MT; Georgas, K; Chiu, HS; Brennan, J; Armstrong, J; Little, MH; McMahon, AP; Southard-Smith, EM. Front Neurosci. vol. 6, 130. September 2012.
Relative positions of neurons within mature murine pelvic ganglia based on expression of neurotransmitters have been described. However the spatial organization of developing innervation in the murine urogenital tract (UGT) and the gene networks that regulate specification and maturation of neurons within the pelvic ganglia of the lower urinary tract (LUT) are unknown. We used whole-mount immunohistochemistry and histochemical stains to localize neural elements in 15.5 days post coitus (dpc) fetal mice. To identify potential regulatory factors expressed in pelvic ganglia, we surveyed expression patterns for known or probable transcription factors (TF) annotated in the mouse genome by screening a whole-mount in situ hybridization library of fetal UGTs. Of the 155 genes detected in pelvic ganglia, 88 encode TFs based on the presence of predicted DNA-binding domains. Neural crest (NC)-derived progenitors within the LUT were labeled by Sox10, a well-known regulator of NC development. Genes identified were categorized based on patterns of restricted expression in pelvic ganglia, pelvic ganglia and urethral epithelium, or pelvic ganglia and urethral mesenchyme. Gene expression patterns and the distribution of Sox10+, Phox2b+, Hu+, and PGP9.5+ cells within developing ganglia suggest previously unrecognized regional segregation of Sox10+ progenitors and differentiating neurons in early development of pelvic ganglia. Reverse transcription-PCR of pelvic ganglia RNA from fetal and post-natal stages demonstrated that multiple TFs maintain post-natal expression, although Pax3 is extinguished before weaning. Our analysis identifies multiple potential regulatory genes including TFs that may participate in segregation of discrete lineages within pelvic ganglia. The genes identified here are attractive candidate disease genes that may now be further investigated for their roles in malformation syndromes or in LUT dysfunction.
Yu, J; Valerius, MT; Duah, M; Staser, K; Hansard, JK; Guo, JJ; McMahon, J; Vaughan, J; Faria, D; Georgas, K; Rumballe, B; Ren, Q; Krautzberger, AM; Junker, JP; Thiagarajan, RD; Machanick, P; Gray, PA; van Oudenaarden, A; Rowitch, DH; Stiles, CD; Ma, Q; Grimmond, SM; Bailey, TL; Little, MH; McMahon, AP. Development. vol. 139(10), 1863–73. May 2012.
Lengthy developmental programs generate cell diversity within an organotypic framework, enabling the later physiological actions of each organ system. Cell identity, cell diversity and cell function are determined by cell type-specific transcriptional programs; consequently, transcriptional regulatory factors are useful markers of emerging cellular complexity, and their expression patterns provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms at play. We performed a comprehensive genome-scale in situ expression screen of 921 transcriptional regulators in the developing mammalian urogenital system. Focusing on the kidney, analysis of regional-specific expression patterns identified novel markers and cell types associated with development and patterning of the urinary system. Furthermore, promoter analysis of synexpressed genes predicts transcriptional control mechanisms that regulate cell differentiation. The annotated informational resource (www.gudmap.org) will facilitate functional analysis of the mammalian kidney and provides useful information for the generation of novel genetic tools to manipulate emerging cell populations.
Harding, SD; Armit, C; Armstrong, J; Brennan, J; Cheng, Y; Haggarty, B; Houghton, D; Lloyd-MacGilp, S; Pi, X; Roochun, Y; Sharghi, M; Tindal, C; McMahon, AP; Gottesman, B; Little, MH; Georgas, K; Aronow, B; Potter, SS; Brunskill, EW; Southard-Smith, EM; Mendelsohn, C; Baldock, RA; Davies, JA; Davidson, D. Development. vol. 138(13), 2845–53. July 2011.
The GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) is an international consortium working to generate gene expression data and transgenic mice. GUDMAP includes data from large-scale in situ hybridisation screens (wholemount and section) and microarray gene expression data of microdissected, laser-captured and FACS-sorted components of the developing mouse genitourinary (GU) system. These expression data are annotated using a high-resolution anatomy ontology specific to the developing murine GU system. GUDMAP data are freely accessible at www.gudmap.org via easy-to-use interfaces. This curated, high-resolution dataset serves as a powerful resource for biologists, clinicians and bioinformaticians interested in the developing urogenital system. This paper gives examples of how the data have been used to address problems in developmental biology and provides a primer for those wishing to use the database in their own research.
Mugford, JW; Yu, J; Kobayashi, A; McMahon, AP. Dev Biol. vol. 333(2), 312–23. September 2009.
The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. During its organogenesis, the mammalian metanephric kidney generates thousands of nephrons over a protracted period of fetal life. All nephrons are derived from a population of self-renewing multi-potent progenitor cells, termed the cap mesenchyme. However, our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying nephron development is at an early stage. In order to identify factors involved in nephrogenesis, we performed a high-resolution, spatial profiling of a number of transcriptional regulators expressed within the cap mesenchyme and early developing nephron. Our results demonstrate novel, stereotypic, spatially defined cellular sub-domains within the cap mesenchyme, which may, in part, reflect induction of nephron precursors. These results suggest a hitherto unappreciated complexity of cell states that accompany the assembly of the metanephric kidney, likely reflecting diverse regulatory actions such as the maintenance and induction of nephron progenitors.
Georgas, K; Rumballe, B; Valerius, MT; Chiu, HS; Thiagarajan, RD; Lesieur, E; Aronow, B; Brunskill, EW; Combes, AN; Tang, D; Taylor, D; Grimmond, SM; Potter, SS; McMahon, AP; Little, MH. Dev Biol. vol. 332(2), 273–86. August 2009.
While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage.
Brunskill, EW; Aronow, B; Georgas, K; Rumballe, B; Valerius, MT; Aronow, B; Kaimal, V; Jegga, AG; Yu, J; Grimmond, SM; McMahon, AP; Patterson, LT; Little, MH; Potter, SS. Dev Cell. vol. 15(5), 781–91. November 2008.
Kidney development is based on differential cell-type-specific expression of a vast number of genes. While multiple critical genes and pathways have been elucidated, a genome-wide analysis of gene expression within individual cellular and anatomic structures is lacking. Accomplishing this could provide significant new insights into fundamental developmental mechanisms such as mesenchymal-epithelial transition, inductive signaling, branching morphogenesis, and segmentation. We describe here a comprehensive gene expression atlas of the developing mouse kidney based on the isolation of each major compartment by either laser capture microdissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting, followed by microarray profiling. The resulting data agree with known expression patterns and additional in situ hybridizations. This kidney atlas allows a comprehensive analysis of the progression of gene expression states during nephrogenesis, as well as discovery of potential growth factor-receptor interactions. In addition, the results provide deeper insight into the genetic regulatory mechanisms of kidney development.
McMahon, AP; Aronow, B; Davidson, DR; Davies, JA; Gaido, KW; Grimmond, SM; Lessard, JL; Little, MH; Potter, SS; Wilder, EL; Zhang, P; GUDMAP, Project. J Am Soc Nephrol. vol. 19(4), 667–71. April 2008.
In late 2004, an International Consortium of research groups were charged with the task of producing a high-quality molecular anatomy of the developing mammalian urogenital tract (UGT). Given the importance of these organ systems for human health and reproduction, the need for a systematic molecular and cellular description of their developmental programs was deemed a high priority. The information obtained through this initiative is anticipated to enable the highest level of basic and clinical research grounded on a 21st-century view of the developing anatomy. There are three components to the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Anatomy Project GUDMAP; all of these are intended to provide resources that support research on the kidney and UGT. The first provides ontology of the cell types during UGT development and the molecular hallmarks of those cells as discerned by a variety of procedures, including in situ hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and immunostaining. The second generates novel mouse strains. In these strains, cell types of particular interest within an organ are labeled through the introduction of a specific marker into the context of a gene that exhibits appropriate cell type or structure-specific expression. In addition, the targeting construct enables genetic manipulation within the cell of interest in many of the strains. Finally, the information is annotated, collated, and promptly released at regular intervals, before publication, through a database that is accessed through a Web portal. Presented here is a brief overview of the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Anatomy Project effort.
Little, MH; Brennan, J; Georgas, K; Davies, JA; Davidson, DR; Baldock, RA; Beverdam, A; Bertram, JF; Capel, B; Chiu, HS; Clements, D; Cullen-McEwen, L; Fleming, J; Gilbert, T; Herzlinger, D; Houghton, D; Kaufman, MH; Kleymenova, E; Koopman, PA; Lewis, AG; McMahon, AP; Mendelsohn, C; Mitchell, EK; Rumballe, BA; Sweeney, DE; Valerius, MT; Yamada, G; Yang, Y; Yu, J. Gene Expr Patterns. vol. 7(6), 680–99. June 2007.
Cataloguing gene expression during development of the genitourinary tract will increase our understanding not only of this process but also of congenital defects and disease affecting this organ system. We have developed a high-resolution ontology with which to describe the subcompartments of the developing murine genitourinary tract. This ontology incorporates what can be defined histologically and begins to encompass other structures and cell types already identified at the molecular level. The ontology is being used to annotate in situ hybridisation data generated as part of the Genitourinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP), a publicly available data resource on gene and protein expression during genitourinary development. The GUDMAP ontology encompasses Theiler stage (TS) 17-27 of development as well as the sexually mature adult. It has been written as a partonomic, text-based, hierarchical ontology that, for the embryological stages, has been developed as a high-resolution expansion of the existing Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP) ontology. It also includes group terms for well-characterised structural and/or functional units comprising several sub-structures, such as the nephron and juxtaglomerular complex. Each term has been assigned a unique identification number. Synonyms have been used to improve the success of query searching and maintain wherever possible existing EMAP terms relating to this organ system. We describe here the principles and structure of the ontology and provide representative diagrammatic, histological, and whole mount and section RNA in situ hybridisation images to clarify the terms used within the ontology. Visual examples of how terms appear in different specimen types are also provided.